Does Metabolic Syndrome Impact the Risk of Reoperation, Revision, or Complication After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty?

Cameron K. Ledford, Arun R. Kumar, Christian G. Guier, Kristin M. Fruth, Mark W. Pagnano, Daniel J. Berry, Matthew P. Abdel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an increasingly frequent condition characterized by insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This study evaluated implant survivorship, complications, and clinical outcomes of primary TKAs performed in patients who have MetS. Methods: Utilizing our institutional total joint registry, 2,063 primary TKAs were performed in patients with a diagnosis of MetS according to the World Health Organization criteria. MetS patients were matched 1:1 based on age, sex, and surgical year to those who did not have the condition. The World Health Organization's body mass index (BMI) classification was utilized to evaluate the effect of obesity within MetS patients. Kaplan–Meier methods were utilized to determine implant survivorship. Clinical outcomes were assessed with Knee Society scores. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Results: MetS and non-MetS patients did not have significant differences in 5-year implant survivorship free from any reoperation (P = .7), any revision (P = .2), and reoperation for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI; P = .2). When stratifying, patients with MetS and BMI >40 had significantly decreased 5-year survivorship free from any revision (95 versus 98%, respectively; hazard ratio = 2.1, P = .005) and reoperation for PJI (97 versus 99%, respectively; hazard ratio = 2.2, P = .02). Both MetS and non-MetS groups experienced significant improvements in Knee Society Scores (77 versus 78, respectively; P < .001) that were not significantly different (P = .3). Conclusion: MetS did not significantly increase the risk of any reoperation after TKA; however, MetS patients with BMI >40 had a two-fold risk of any revision and reoperation for PJI. These results suggest that obesity is an important condition within MetS criteria and remains an independent risk factor. Level of Evidence: Level 3, Case-control study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-265
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • abdominal obesity
  • dyslipidemia
  • hypertension
  • insulin resistance
  • revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA)
  • syndrome X

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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