In this secondary analysis of Hispanic adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 10403, we evaluated outcomes and geographic enrollment patterns relative to US population data. We used demographic, clinical, and survival data on AYAs enrolled on CALGB 10403 (N = 295, 2007-2012). Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries provided overall survival (OS) for US AYA ALL by ethnicity/race. North American Association of Cancer Registries provided AYA ALL incidence overall and proportion among Hispanics by US state. Of AYAs enrolled on CALGB 10403, 263 (89%) reported ethnicity/race: 45 (17%) Hispanic, 172 (65%) non-Hispanic White (NHW), 25 (10%) non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and 21 (8%) other. Compared with NHWs, Hispanic and NHB patients had lower household income, and Hispanic patients were more likely to harbor high-risk CRLF2 aberrations. Relative to US estimates, where Hispanic patients represented 46% of newly diagnosed AYA ALL patients and experienced inferior OS compared with NHW (P < .001), Hispanic AYAs on CALGB 10403 did as well as NHW patients (3 year OS, 75% vs 74%; P = NS). Hispanic patients also had higher rates of protocol completion (P = .05). Enrollments on CALGB 10403 differed relative to the distribution of Hispanic AYA ALL in the United States: enrollment was highest in the Midwest; t and only 15% of enrollees were from states with a high proportion of Hispanic AYA ALL patients. In summary, Hispanic patients treated on CALGB 10403 did as well as NHWs and better than population estimates. Geographical misalignment between trial sites and disease epidemiology may partially explain the lower-than-expected enrollment of Hispanic AYA ALL patients.
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