Discriminative learning, restorative learning, and adversarial learning have proven beneficial for self-supervised learning schemes in computer vision and medical imaging. Existing efforts, however, omit their synergistic effects on each other in a ternary setup, which, we envision, can sig-nificantly benefit deep semantic representation learning. To realize this vision, we have developed DiRA, thefirstframework that unites discriminative, restorative, and adversarial learning in a unified manner to collaboratively glean complementary visual information from unlabeled medical images for fine-grained semantic representation learning. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that DiRA (1) encourages collaborative learning among three learning ingredients, resulting in more generalizable representation across organs, diseases, and modalities; (2) outperforms fully supervised ImageNet models and increases robustness in small data regimes, reducing annotation cost across multiple medical imaging applications; (3) learns fine-grained semantic representation, facilitating accurate lesion localization with only image-level annotation; and (4) enhances state-of-the-art restorative approaches, revealing that DiRA is a general mechanism for united representation learning. All code and pretrained models are available at https://github.com/JLiangLab/DiRA.