Dietary Risk Factors for Incident and Recurrent Symptomatic Kidney Stones

Api Chewcharat, Charat Thongprayoon, Lisa E. Vaughan, Ramila A. Mehta, Phillip J. Schulte, Helen M. O'Connor, John C. Lieske, Eric N. Taylor, Andrew D. Rule

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare dietary factors between incident symptomatic stone formers and controls, and among the incident stone formers, to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of symptomatic recurrence. Patients and Methods: We prospectively recruited 411 local incident symptomatic kidney stone formers (medical record validated) and 384 controls who were seen at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota or Florida between January 1, 2009, and August 31, 2018. Dietary factors were based on a Viocare, Inc, food frequency questionnaire administered during a baseline in-person study visit. Logistic regression compared dietary risk factors between incident symptomatic stone formers and controls. Incident stone formers were followed up for validated symptomatic recurrence in the medical record. Cox proportional hazards models estimated risk of symptomatic recurrence with dietary factors. Analyses adjusted for fluid intake, energy intake, and nondietary risk factors. Results: In fully adjusted analyses, lower dietary calcium, potassium, caffeine, phytate, and fluid intake were all associated with a higher odds of an incident symptomatic kidney stone. Among incident stone formers, 73 experienced symptomatic recurrence during a median 4.1 years of follow-up. Adjusting for body mass index, fluid intake, and energy intake, lower dietary calcium and lower potassium intake were predictive of symptomatic kidney stone recurrence. With further adjustment for nondietary risk factors, lower dietary calcium intake remained a predictor of recurrence, but lower potassium intake only remained a predictor of recurrence among those not taking thiazide diuretics or calcium supplements. Conclusion: Enriching diets in stone formers with foods high in calcium and potassium may help prevent recurrent symptomatic kidney stones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1437-1448
Number of pages12
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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