Development of Experimental Three-Dimensional Tumor Models to Study Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells and Tumor Microenvironment

Henry Ruiz-Garcia, Natanael Zarco, Fumihiro Watanabe, Virginea De Araujo Farias, Paola Suarez-Meade, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Jaime Imitola, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Daniel Trifiletti

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and dismal primary brain tumor. Unfortunately, despite multidisciplinary treatment, most patients will perish approximately 15 months after diagnosis. For this reason, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of GBM tumor biology and develop novel therapies that can achieve better clinical outcomes. In this setting, three-dimensional tumor models have risen as more appropriate preclinical tools when compared to traditional cell cultures, given that two-dimensional (2D) cultures have failed to accurately recapitulate tumor biology and translate preclinical findings into patient benefits. Three-dimensional cultures using neurospheres, organoids, and organotypic better resemble original tumor genetic and epigenetic profiles, maintaining tumor microenvironment characteristics and mimicking cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. This chapter summarizes our methods to generate well-characterized glioblastoma neurospheres, organoids, and organotypics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Glioblastoma
  • Neurosphere
  • Organoids
  • Organotypics
  • Stem cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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