Developing a toolkit to implement the Statin Choice Conversation Aid at scale: Application of a work reduction model

Aaron L. Leppin, Kasey R. Boehmer, Megan E. Branda, Nilay D. Shah, Ian Hargraves, Sara Dick, Glyn Elwyn, Henry H. Ting, Siqin Ye, Ryan Gilles, Marghoob Abbas, Alex Alexander, Victor M. Montori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Guidelines recommend shared decision making (SDM) for determining whether to use statins to prevent cardiovascular events in at-risk patients. We sought to develop a toolkit to facilitate the cross-organizational spread and scale of a SDM intervention called the Statin Choice Conversation Aid (SCCA) by (i) assessing the work stakeholders must do to implement the tool; and (ii) orienting the resulting toolkit's components to communicate and mitigate this work. Methods: We conducted multi-level and mixed methods (survey, interview, observation, focus group) characterizations of the contexts of 3 health systems (n = 86, 84, and 26 primary care clinicians) as they pertained to the impending implementation of the SCCA. We merged the data within implementation outcome domains of feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability. Using Normalization Process Theory, we then characterized and categorized the work stakeholders did to implement the tool. We used clinician surveys and IP address-based tracking to calculate SCCA usage over time and judged how stakeholder effort was allocated to influence outcomes at 6 and 18 months. After assessing the types and impact of the work, we developed a multi-component toolkit. Results: At baseline, the three contexts differed regarding feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness of implementation. The work of adopting the tool was allocated across many strategies in complex and interdependent ways to optimize these domains. The two systems that allocated the work strategically had higher uptake (5.2 and 2.9 vs. 1.1 uses per clinician per month at 6 months; 3.8 and 2.1 vs. 0.4 at 18 months, respectively) than the system that did not. The resulting toolkit included context self-assessments intended to guide stakeholders in considering the early work of SCCA implementation; and webinars, EMR integration guides, video demonstrations, and an implementation team manual aimed at supporting this work. Conclusions: We developed a multi-component toolkit for facilitating the scale-up and spread of a tool to promote SDM across clinical settings. The theory-based approach we employed aimed to distinguish systems primed for adoption and support the work they must do to achieve implementation. Our approach may have value in orienting the development of multi-component toolkits and other strategies aimed at facilitating the efficient scale up of interventions. Trial registration: NCT02375815.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number249
JournalBMC health services research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 24 2019


  • Implementation
  • Implementation strategies
  • Implementation toolkit
  • Scale-up
  • Shared decision making
  • Spread
  • Statin choice conversation aid
  • Statin choice decision aid
  • Statins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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