Description of Pharmacogenomic Testing Among Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit After Cardiovascular Surgery

Pamela E. Peterson, Wayne T. Nicholson, Ann M. Moyer, Christopher J. Arendt, Nathan J. Smischney, Troy G. Seelhammer, Catherine A. Krecke, Rory M. Haney, Elissa J. Yaw, Linda L. Chlan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has the potential to provide information on specific drug-metabolizing enzymes that may lead to an absence, reduction, or increase in medication effect in patients. There is a paucity of prospective studies examining PGx testing in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Research Aims: To (1) obtain a PGx panel in a sample of cardiovascular (CV) surgical patients with a planned ICU stay and identify phenotypes, and (2) identify PGx variants that may inform treatment regimens and may warrant prescribing adjustments. Design and Methods: Descriptive, single cohort cross-sectional design. Adult (≥18 years) CV patients with an anticipated postoperative ICU stay were enrolled from a large Midwestern tertiary academic medical center. Eligible patients provided informed consent at the time of their CV clinic appointment; PGx testing was then ordered. Pharmacogenomic testing consisted of the Focused Pharmacogenomics panel which included 10 genes and 55 medications. Results: Of the 272 patients screened, 100 (68% male) patients completed PGx testing (mean age 66.2 ± 9.6 years, mean Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation III score 76.1 ± standard deviation). Pharmacogenomic results were available in the medical record within a median of 52.4 hours (interquartile range: 33.4-80.3). Pharmacogenomic testing results identified 5 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, 26 CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers, 5 CYP2C19 ultrarapid metabolizers, 6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, 5 CYP2D6 poor to intermediate metabolizers, and 2 CYP2D6 rapid metabolizers identified. Overall, 98% of patients had actionable or potentially actionable PGx results, including 82% for warfarin, 65% for propafenone, 65% for tramadol, 46% for oxycodone, 45% for metoprolol, 33% for clopidogrel, 32% for proton pump inhibitors, 25% for statins, and 12% for haloperidol. Conclusions: A significant portion of patients had identified genetic variants that may warrant changes in medication management during and after CV-ICU stay. It remains to be seen if PGx testing leads to improvements in ICU patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1281-1285
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Intensive Care Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • cardiovascular surgery
  • intensive care unit
  • medication
  • pharmacogenomics
  • precision health care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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