Defining the Phenotype and Assessing Severity in Phosphoglucomutase-1 Deficiency

Sunnie Yan Wai Wong, Therese Gadomski, Tamas Kozicz, Eva Morava, Lesa J. Beamer, Tomas Honzik, Miski Mohamed, Eva Morava, Saskia B. Wortmann, Katja S. Brocke Holmefjord, Marit Mork, Francis Bowling, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Dieter Koch, Amanda Ackermann, Charles A. Stanley, Daisy Rymen, Avraham Zeharia, Moeen Al-Sayed, Thomas MarquardtJaak Jaeken, Dirk Lefeber, Donald F. Conrad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Objective To define phenotypic groups and identify predictors of disease severity in patients with phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency (PGM1-CDG). Study design We evaluated 27 patients with PGM1-CDG who were divided into 3 phenotypic groups, and group assignment was validated by a scoring system, the Tulane PGM1-CDG Rating Scale (TPCRS). This scale evaluates measurable clinical features of PGM1-CDG. We examined the relationship between genotype, enzyme activity, and TPCRS score by using regression analysis. Associations between the most common clinical features and disease severity were evaluated by principal component analysis. Results We found a statistically significant stratification of the TPCRS scores among the phenotypic groups (P <.001). Regression analysis showed that there is no significant correlation between genotype, enzyme activity, and TPCRS score. Principal component analysis identified 5 variables that contributed to 54% variance in the cohort and are predictive of disease severity: congenital malformation, cardiac involvement, endocrine deficiency, myopathy, and growth. Conclusions We established a scoring algorithm to reliably evaluate disease severity in patients with PGM1-CDG on the basis of their clinical history and presentation. We also identified 5 clinical features that are predictors of disease severity; 2 of these features can be evaluated by physical examination, without the need for specific diagnostic testing and thus allow for rapid assessment and initiation of therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)130-136.e8
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • bifid uvula
  • cleft palate
  • coagulopathy
  • congenital disorder of glycosylation
  • congenital malformation
  • dilated cardiomyopathy
  • hepatopathy
  • hormonal deficiency
  • hypoglycemia
  • myopathy
  • small stature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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