Most spermatocytic tumors (STs) have an excellent prognosis. In rare instances, metastatic disease has been documented. However, it is unclear if aggressive tumors have specific molecular alterations. Herein, we have studied primary STs with (n = 4) and without (n = 3) anaplastic features, including single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays for 5 ST (nonanaplastic: 3; anaplastic: 2). The mean age at orchiectomy and tumor size was 49 years and 6.5 cm, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion and necrosis were identified in 3 (of 4, 75%) anaplastic STs, including one with clinically metastatic disease and one with locally aggressive disease. None of the cases in this study exhibited sarcomatoid change. The mean mitotic count was higher in anaplastic tumors (59/10 versus 10/10 high-power fields). All STs in this study were positive for SALL4 and CD117 and negative for OCT3/4 and CD30 (7/7, 100%). SSX-C positivity was identified in all but the locally aggressive anaplastic ST (5 of 6, 83%). All STs showed a consistent gain of chromosome 9 including the locus for the DMRT1 gene (5 of 5 cases, 100%), while gains of chromosome 12p were only seen in 2 (of 2) anaplastic variants. Gains of 12p in anaplastic STs may represent a biomarker of transformation into more aggressive tumors. Alternatively, STs with gain of 12p may represent an intermediate state between type II and type III germ cell tumors. Future studies are needed to validate whether gain of 12p is a consistent feature of STs with anaplastic morphology and its association with aggressive clinical behavior.
- Anaplastic variant
- Isochromosome 12p
- Spermatocytic tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine