CXCR4+/FLK-1+ biomarkers select a cardiopoietic lineage from embryonic stem cells

Timothy J. Nelson, Randolph S. Faustino, Anca Chiriac, Ruben Crespo-Diaz, Atta Behfar, Andre Terzic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


Pluripotent stem cells demonstrate an inherent propensity for unrestricted multi-lineage differentiation. Translation into regenerative applications requires identification and isolation of tissue-specified progenitor cells. From a comprehensive pool of 11,272 quality-filtered genes, profiling embryonic stem cells at discrete stages of cardiopoiesis revealed 736 transcripts encoding membrane-associated proteins, where 306 were specifically upregulated with cardiogenic differentiation. Bioinformatic dissection of exposed surface biomarkers prioritized the chemokine receptor cluster as the most significantly over-represented gene receptor family during pre cardiac induction, with CXCR4 uniquely associated with mesendoderm formation. CXCR4+ progenitors were sorted from the embryonic stem cell pool into mesoderm-restricted progeny according to co-expression with the early mesoderm marker Flk-1. In contrast to CXCR4-/Flk-1- cells, the CXCR4+/Flk-1 + subpopulation demonstrated overexpressed cardiac lineage transcription factors (Mef2C, Myocardin, Nkx2.5), whereas pluripotent genes (Oct4, Fgf4, Sox2) as well as neuroectoderm (Sox1) and endoderm alpha-fetoprotein markers were all depleted. In fact, the CXCR4 +/Flk-1+ biomarker combination identified embryonic stem cell progeny significantly enriched with Mesp-1, GATA-4, and Tbx5, indicative of pre cardiac mesoderm and the primary heart field. Although the CXCR4 +/Flk-1+ transcriptome shared 97% identity with the CXCR4-/Flk-1+ counterpart, the 818 divergent gene set represented predominantly cardiovascular developmental functions and formed a primitive cardiac network. Differentiation of CXCR4+/Flk-1 + progenitors yielded nuclear translocation of myocardial transcription factors and robust sarcomerogenesis with nascent cardiac tissue demonstrating beating activity and calcium transients. Thus, the CXCR4/Flk-1 biomarker pair predicts the emergence of cardiogenic specification within a pluripotent stem cell pool, enabling targeted selection of cardiopoietic lineage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1464-1473
Number of pages10
JournalStem Cells
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2008


  • Biomarker
  • Cardiac differentiation
  • Cardiopoiesis
  • Network
  • Transcriptome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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