Cumulative effect of obesity phenotypes on body weight and body mass index

Wissam Ghusn, Lizeth Cifuentes, Diego Anazco, Sima Fansa, Elif Tama, Alejandro Campos, Khushboo Gala, Daniela Maria Hurtado, Andres Acosta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Obesity originates from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Changes in energy intake components (satiation, postprandial satiety, emotional eating) and energy expenditure have been linked to obesity and are referred to as obesity phenotypes. We aim to study if these obesity phenotypes have a cumulative effect on body weight and body mass index (BMI). Subject/methods: This is a cross-sectional study of adult patients with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) who completed the validated tests to measure the obesity phenotypes. A total of 464 were included in this study. Interventions/methods: We defined higher calories to fullness during an ad libitum meal as abnormal satiation, accelerated time to half gastric emptying with scintigraphy as abnormal postprandial satiety, higher anxiety score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as hedonic eating behavior, and decreased percentage of measured resting energy expenditure as abnormal energy expenditure. The primary analysis was done on the number of phenotypes (≤ 1 and ≥ 2) with body weight and BMI using an independent t-test. Results: Our cohort included 464 patients (mean [SD] age 42.0 [10.9] years, 79% females, weight 111.2 [22.9] kg, BMI 38.9 [7.0] kg/m2). There were 294 patients who had ≤ 1 phenotype, and 170 patients with ≥ 2 phenotypes with no baseline demographical differences (i.e., age and sex). Having ≥ 2 phenotypes was associated with higher body weight (115 [25] kg vs. 109 [21] kg; p = 0.004), BMI (40 [8] kg/m2 vs. 38 [7] kg/m2; p = 0.02) and waist (118 [15] cm vs. 115 [13] cm; p = 0.04) and hip (129 [14] cm vs. 125 [13] cm; p = 0.01) circumferences compared to ≤ 1 phenotype. Conclusion: Obesity phenotypes are associated with an additive effect on the body weight and BMI. Patients who have multiple obesity phenotypes may require a more aggressive approach to enhance weight loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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