D. V. Subba Rao, Ravi V. Durvasula, Adinarayana Kunamneni, Chava V. Nageswara Rao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In this chapter, following a brief historical review of dinoflagellate cultures, methods of culturing athecate, thecate, toxic dinoflagellates and composition of 22 media are presented. About a total of 100 species of photosynthetic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic and symbiotic dinoflagellates are amenable for culturing. Division rates of natural assemblages of dinoflagellates, and as well as those cultured reported from various publications are summarized. In general, dinoflagellates have lower division rates compared to several other microalgae. The impact of salinity, temperature, and light, nutrients such as phosphate, nitrate, ammonia and iron on division rates is discussed. Mixotrophy appears to be common amongst dinoflagellates and resulted in higher growth rates than cells grown as autotrophs. The lower division rates in dinoflagellates are possibly due to channelling of much energy into the production of cellulose skeleton and toxins; this needs to be substantiated with detailed observations on the Carbon: Nitrogen dynamics in a variety of dinoflagellate cultures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDinoflagellates
Subtitle of host publicationClassification, Evolution, Physiology and Ecological Significance
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages43
ISBN (Electronic)9781536178890
ISBN (Print)9781536178883
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • divison rates
  • growth
  • media
  • nutients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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