Critical Appraisal of Transesophageal Echocardiography: Limitations, Pitfalls, and Complications

James B. Seward, Bijoy K. Khandheria, Jae K. Oh, William K. Freeman, A. Jamil Tajik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

138 Scopus citations


Because transesophageal echocardiography is invasive, it has the potential for serious complications. Limitations occur because of the restricted transducer mobility within the confines of the esophagus and stomach and the inability to easily exchange transducers for special situations. Pitfalls (potential erroneous diagnoses resulting from misinterpretation of normal and abnormal anatomy) are prevelent with this new technology. This report critically reviews transesophageal echocardiography and discusses and illustrates commonly encountered limitations, pitfalls, and complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)288-305
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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