COVID-19 immunopathology: From acute diseases to chronic sequelae

Mohd Arish, Wei Qian, Harish Narasimhan, Jie Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The clinical manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mainly targets the lung as a primary affected organ, which is also a critical site of immune cell activation by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, recent reports also suggest the involvement of extrapulmonary tissues in COVID-19 pathology. The interplay of both innate and adaptive immune responses is key to COVID-19 management. As a result, a robust innate immune response provides the first line of defense, concomitantly, adaptive immunity neutralizes the infection and builds memory for long-term protection. However, dysregulated immunity, both innate and adaptive, can skew towards immunopathology both in acute and chronic cases. Here we have summarized some of the recent findings that provide critical insight into the immunopathology caused by SARS-CoV-2, in acute and post-acute cases. Finally, we further discuss some of the immunomodulatory drugs in preclinical and clinical trials for dampening the immunopathology caused by COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere28122
JournalJournal of medical virology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • SARS coronavirus
  • immnopathology
  • immune responses
  • respiratory tract

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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