Correction of concomitant magnetic field-induced image artifacts in nonaxial echo-planar imaging

Yiping P. Du, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Matt A. Bernstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Echo-planar images acquired in nonaxial planes are often distorted. Such image distortion has limited the applications of the echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique. In this article, it is demonstrated that a considerable amount of the distortion is caused by the higher-order magnetic field concomitant with the linear magnetic field gradient, or the concomitant magnetic field. The image distortion caused by the concomitant magnetic field is more prominent when a higher gradient amplitude is used for readout. It is also shown that the concomitant magnetic field can cause ghosting and blurring. A theoretical analysis is performed for the concomitant field effect in nonaxial EPI images. A point-by-point (or line-by-line) phase correction algorithm is developed to correct the image distortion, ghosting, and blurring. A postreconstruction processing algorithm is also developed to correct image distortion with much higher computational efficiency. Experimental results show that both correction methods effectively reduce the image distortion in coronal or sagittal images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-515
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2002


  • Concomitant magnetic field
  • Echo-planar imaging
  • Maxwell field
  • Phase correction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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