Congenital heart disease: Wide-field, three-dimensional, and four-dimemsional ultrasound imaging

J. B. Seward, M. Belohlavek, P. W. O'Leary, D. A. Foley, J. F. Greenleaf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The next significant advance for cardiovascular ultrasound will be the introduction of clinical three-dimensional (3-D) imaging. With increasing computer power and software and hardware, 3-D ultrasound imaging will become a reality over the next few years. Of all cardiovascular abnormalities, congenital heart disease is one of the most logical entities to lend itself to wide-field and 3-D presentation. Tomographic two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography has in great part replaced cardiac catheterization as the means of accurately visualizing congenital cardiac defects. However, two distinct limitations exist with current 2-D presentations: (1) limited field of view (ie, 90° sector) and (2) tomographic slices that must be assimilated by the examiner into a 3-D or four dimensional diagnosis. True 3-D imaging has the ultimate capability of rendering anatomy in a format comparable to looking at the actual cardiac specimen. If electronic rendering were really feasible and of suitable quality, one could envision electronically extracting the heart from a living human and examining abnormalities much as one might examine a cardiac specimen (ie, 'electronic vivisection'). This article reviews the state of the art of wide-field and 3-D cardiovascular ultrasound in the assessment of congenital heart disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-43
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiac Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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