Conductivities of three-layer line human skull

M. Akhtari, H. C. Bryant, A. N. Mamelak, E. R. Flynn, L. Heller, J. J. Shih, M. Mandelkem, A. Matlachov, D. M. Ranken, E. D. Best, M. A. Dimauro, R. R. Lee, W. W. Sutherling

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176 Scopus citations


Electrical conductivities of compact, spongiosum, and bulk layers of the live human skull were determined at varying frequencies and electric fields at room temperature using the four-electrode method. Current, at higher densities that occur in human cranium, was applied and withdrawn over the top and bottom surfaces of each sample and potential drop across different layers was measured. We used a model that considers variations in skull thicknesses to determine the conductivity of the tri-layer skull and its individual anatomical structures. The results indicate that the conductivities of the spongiform (16.2-41.1 milliS/m), the top compact (5.4-7.2 milliS/m) and lower compact (2.8-10.2 milliS/m) layers of the skull have significantly different and inhomogeneous conductivities. The conductivities of the skull layers are frequency dependent in the 10-90 Hz region and are non-ohmic in the 0.45-2.07 A/m2 region. These current densities are much higher than those occurring in human brain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-167
Number of pages17
JournalBrain Topography
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002


  • Conductivity
  • Electroencephalography
  • Live human skull
  • Magnetoencephalography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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