Comparison of visibility measurement techniques for forklift truck design factors

Chin Bong Choi, Peom Park, Young Ho Kim, M. Susan Hallbeck, Myung Chul Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This study applied the light bulb shadow test, a manikin vision assessment test, and an individual test to a forklift truck to identify forklift truck design factors influencing visibility. The light bulb shadow test followed the standard of ISO/DIS 13564-1 for traveling and maneuvering tests with four test paths (Test Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 6). Digital human and forklift truck models were developed for the manikin vision assessment test with CATIA V5R13 human modeling solutions. Six participants performed the individual tests. Both employed similar parameters to the light bulb shadow test. The individual test had better visibility with fewer numbers and a greater distribution of the shadowed grids than the other two tests due to eye movement and anthropometric differences. The design factors of load backrest extension, lift chain, hose, dashboard, and steering wheel should be the first factors considered to improve visibility, especially when a forklift truck mainly performs a forward traveling task in an open area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)280-285
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2009


  • Forklift truck visibility
  • Light bulb shadow test
  • Manikin vision assessment test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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