Coccidioidomycosis is the most common endemic mycosis to cause disease in solid-organ transplant patients in North America. Underlying renal and liver disease, T-lymphocyte suppression from antirejection medication, and activation of immunomodulating viruses, such as cytomegalovirus, all increase the risk for coccidioidomycosis among these patients. About one half of all cases are the result of reactivation of previously acquired coccidioidal infection and occur during the first year after transplantation. Although disseminated infection is common, most cases manifest pulmonary symptoms. Culture of pulmonary secretions from bronchoscopy is frequently diagnostic. Serologic tests are particularly useful for identifying patients who are at high risk for reactivating coccidioidomycosis posttransplantation. Amphotericin B and azoles are the mainstay of therapy. Although there are no established approaches to preventing coccidioidomycosis among these patients, studies are underway examining the use of prophylactic azole antifungals with documented prior coccidioidal infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Microbiology (medical)