Clinical phenomenology and mortality in Charles Bonnet syndrome

Maria I. Lapid, M. Caroline Burton, Megan T. Chang, Teresa A. Rummans, Stephen S. Cha, Jacqueline A. Leavitt, Bradley F. Boeve

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background/Aim: Despite existing diagnostic criteria for Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS), clinical manifestations vary greatly. We examined the clinical course and mortality of patients diagnosed with CBS. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with CBS. We collected demographic and clinical information and medical burden scores. Kaplan-Meier mortality curves were compared using log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis and hazard ratio (HR). Mortality was compared to expected mortality from Minnesota population. Results: Seventy-seven patients with CBS had a mean age of 79.5 (standard deviation + 13.0) and were predominantly Caucasian (97%) and female (73%). In all, 20 (26%) subsequently developed a dementia syndrome, most often Lewy body. A total of 46 (60%) deaths occurred with an average follow-up time of 33.0 months. Characteristics associated with mortality included older age (75-84 [HR 3.34, P = .029], >85 [HR 4.58, P = .007]) and renal disease (HR 3.39 with 95% confidence interval 1.31-8.80, P = .012). Medical burden scores were not associated with overall mortality. Mortality was high compared to Minnesota population (P < .0001). Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with CBS developed dementia, and there was a high mortality rate associated with older age and renal disease. Medical burden was not associated with mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-9
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2013


  • cognitive impairment
  • comorbidity
  • dementia
  • geriatric care
  • hallucinations
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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