R115777 is a nonpeptidomimetic enzymespecific inhibitor of farnesyl protein transferase (FT) that was developed as a potential inhibitor of Ras protein signaling, with antitumor activity in preclinical models. This study was a phase 1 trial of orally administered R115777 in 35 adults with poor-risk acute leukemias. Cohorts of patients received R115777 at doses ranging from 100 mg twice daily (bid) to 1200 mg bid for up to 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred at 1200 mg bid, with central neurotoxicity evidenced by ataxia, confusion, and dysarthria. Non-dose-limiting toxicities included reversible nausea, renal insufficiency, polydipsia, paresthesias, and myelosuppression. R115777 inhibited FT activity at 300 mg bid and farnesylation of FT substrates lamin A and HDJ-2 at 600 mg bid. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an effector enzyme of Ras-mediated signaling, was detected in its phosphorylated (activated) form in 8 (36.4%) of 22 pretreatment marrows and became undetectable in 4 of those 8 after one cycle of treatment. Pharmacokinetics revealed a linear relationship between dose and maximum plasma concentration or area under the curve over 12 hours at all dose levels. Weekly marrow samples demonstrated that R115777 accumulated in bone marrow in a dose-dependent fashion, with large increases in marrow drug levels beginning at 600 mg bid and with sustained levels throughout drug administration. Clinical responses occurred in 10 (29%) of the 34 evaluable patients, including 2 complete remissions. Genomic analyses failed to detect N-ras gene mutations in any of the 35 leukemias. The results of this first clinical trial of a signal transduction inhibitor in patients with acute leukemias suggest that inhibitors of FT may have important clinical antileukemic activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology