Chronic exposure to sterile peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions is associated with microvascular and interstitial changes within the blood-peritoneal barrier (peritoneum). These changes are commonly linked to loss of peritoneal function over time, presumably because of angiogenesis-related increased vascular area. However, the effects on peritoneal microvascular function of chronic peritoneal exposure to PD solutions are unknown. The present study examined peritoneal microvascular function after chronic exposure to sterile PD solution. Six rats underwent permanent catheter insertion under anesthesia. Three rats were treated with approximately 16 mL conventional PD solution daily for 6 weeks; catheter insertion controls received 1 mL saline daily. At 6 weeks, visceral peritoneal microvascular function was assessed in vivo using intravital microscopy. Endothelial cell functions were assessed using messenger RNA (mRNA) gene microarray analysis. In both groups, significant angiogenesis was seen, predominantly in the base of the mesentery. Sensitivity and reactivity of the intestinal visceral peritoneal pre-capillary arterioles (A3 arterioles, 8 - 15 microm in diameter) were decreased in the catheter controls, but not in the chronic PD infusion rats. Chronic catheter presence increased the expression of 18 genes in the controls as compared with 12 genes in the chronic infusion rats. In both groups, expression of fibronectin, integrin-beta, integrin-alpha5, collagen type XVIII-alpha1, and matrix metalloproteinase was enhanced. Endothelial expression of proinflammatory genes (interleukin-1beta, tissue pathway inhibitor, chemokine ligand 2) was enhanced by chronic catheter insertion, but not after chronic PD fluid infusion. Increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in inflammation and tissue remodeling results from peritoneal catheter-related endothelial cell activation. Chronic exposure of the nonuremic peritoneum to sterile PD solutions overrides the catheter-related endothelial cell proinflammatory phenotype to restore peritoneal microvascular function.
|Number of pages
|Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis
|Published - 2008
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine