Chromosomal 1q21 abnormalities in multiple myeloma: a review of translational, clinical research, and therapeutic strategies

Kamlesh Bisht, Brian Walker, Shaji K. Kumar, Ivan Spicka, Philippe Moreau, Tom Martin, Luciano J. Costa, Joshua Richter, Taro Fukao, Sandrine Macé, Helgi van de Velde

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease with a median overall survival of approximately 5 years. Gain or amplification of 1q21 (1q21+) occurs in around 40% of patients with MM and generally portends a poor prognosis. Patients with MM who harbor 1q21+ are at increased risk of drug resistance, disease progression, and death. New pharmacotherapies with novel modes of action are required to overcome the negative prognostic impact of 1q21+. Areas covered: This review discusses the detection, biology, prognosis, and therapeutic targeting of 1q21+ in newly diagnosed and relapsed MM. Patients with MM and 1q21+ tend to present with higher tumor burden, greater end-organ damage, and more co-occurring high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities than patients without 1q21+. The chromosomal rearrangements associated with 1q21+ result in dysregulation of genes involved in oncogenesis. Identification and characterization of the 1q21+ molecular targets are needed to inform on prognosis and treatment strategy. Clinical trial data are emerging that addition of isatuximab to combination therapies may improve outcomes in patients with 1q21+ MM. Expert opinion: In the next 5 years, the results of ongoing research and trials are likely to focus on the therapeutic impact and treatment decisions associated with 1q21+ in MM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1099-1114
Number of pages16
JournalExpert Review of Hematology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2021


  • 1q21
  • chromosome aberrations
  • cytogenetic analysis
  • multiple myeloma
  • prognosis
  • treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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