Choosing wisely after publication of level I evidence in breast cancer radiotherapy

Joshua R. Niska, Sameer R. Keole, Barbara A. Pockaj, Michele Y. Halyard, Samir H. Patel, Donald W. Northfelt, Richard J. Gray, Nabil Wasif, Carlos E. Vargas, William W. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Recent trials in early-stage breast cancer support hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) as part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Evidence also suggests that radiotherapy (RT) omission may be reasonable for some patients over 70 years. Among radiation-delivery techniques, intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is more expensive than 3-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). Based on this evidence, in 2013, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) recommended hypofractionated schedules for women aged ≥50 years with early-stage breast cancer and avoiding routine use of IMRT for WBRT. To assess response to level I evidence and adherence to ASTRO recommendations, we evaluated the pattern of RT use for early-stage breast cancer at our National Comprehensive Cancer Network institution from 2006 to 2008 and 2011 to 2013 and compared the results with national trends. Methods: Data from a prospective database were extracted to include patients treated with BCT, aged ≥50 years, with histologic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma, stage T1-T2N0M0, estrogen receptor-positive, and HER2 normal. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and estimated costs based on 2016 Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (technical fees) and Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (professional fees). Results: Among 55 cases from 2006 to 2008, treatment regimens were 11% hypofractionated, 69% traditional schedule, and 20% RT omission (29% of patients were aged >70 years). Among 83 cases from 2011 to 2013, treatment regimens were 54% hypofractionated, 19% traditional schedule, and 27% RT omission (48% of patients were aged >70 years). 3DCRT was used for all WBRT treatments. Direct medical cost estimates were as follows: 15 fractions 3DCRT, $7,197.87; 15 fractions IMRT, $11,232.33; 25 fractions 3DCRT, $9,731.39; and 25 fractions IMRT, $16,877.45. Conclusion: Despite apparent resistance to shorter radiation schedules in the United States, we demonstrate that rapid practice change in response to level I evidence is feasible. Wider adoption of evidence-based guidelines in early-stage breast cancer may substantially lower health care costs and improve convenience for patients without sacrificing oncologic outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalBreast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
StatePublished - Feb 9 2018


  • Breast cancer
  • Choosing wisely
  • Hypofractionation
  • Omission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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