Cholecystokinin-Cholescintigraphy in Adults: Consensus Recommendations of an Interdisciplinary Panel

John K. DiBaise, Bryan K. Richmond, Harvey H. Ziessman, Gregory T. Everson, Robert D. Fanelli, Alan Maurer, Ann Ouyang, Peter Shamamian, Richard J. Simons, Laura A. Wall, Thomas J. Weida, Mark Tulchinsky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Background & Aims: Cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy (CCK-CS) provides a physiologic, noninvasive, and quantitative method for assessing gallbladder contraction and calculation of a gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF). At present, it is used most commonly to identify patients with suspected functional gallbladder disorder. However, the methodology of CCK infusion and normal values differ markedly among imaging centers. Methods: This document represents the consensus opinion of an interdisciplinary panel that gathered to assess the current optimal method for performing CCK-CS in adults, potential uses and limitations of CCK-CS, and questions that require further investigation. Results: The panel recommended the use of a single, standardized, recently described CCK-CS protocol that involves infusion of 0.02 μg/kg of sincalide over 60 minutes with a normal gallbladder ejection fraction defined as ≥38%. The panel emphasized the need for a large, multicenter, prospective clinical trial to establish the utility of CCK-CS in the diagnosis of functional gallbladder disease. Although not without controversy regarding its clinical utility, the primary indication for CCK-CS at present is the well-selected patient with suspected functional gallbladder disorder. Conclusions: Agreement was reached that the adoption of this standardized protocol is critical to improve how CCK-CS is used to direct patient care and will represent an improvement over the diverse methods currently in use by eliminating the current lack of uniformity and adding both reliability and credibility to the results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)376-384
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2011


  • Cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy
  • Functional Gallbladder Disorder
  • Gallbladder Ejection Fraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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