Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Sex, and Obesity: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

Roxana L. Aguirre Castaneda, Seema Kumar, Robert G. Voigt, Cynthia L. Leibson, William J. Barbaresi, Amy L. Weaver, Jill M. Killian, Slavica K. Katusic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective To assess obesity rates during childhood and young adulthood in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and age- and sex-matched controls derived from a population-based birth cohort because cross-sectional studies suggest an association between ADHD and obesity. Patients and Methods Study subjects included patients with childhood ADHD (n=336) and age- and sex-matched non-ADHD controls (n=665) from a 1976 to 1982 birth cohort (N=5718). Height, weight, and stimulant treatment measurements were abstracted retrospectively from medical records documenting care provided from January 1, 1976, through August 31, 2010. The association between ADHD and obesity in patients with ADHD relative to controls was estimated using Cox models. Results Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were 1.23 (95% CI, 1.00-1.50; P<.05) times more likely to be obese during the follow-up period than were non-ADHD controls. This association was not statistically significant in either sex (female participants: hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 0.98-2.27; P=.06; male participants HR, 1.17, 95% CI, 0.92-1.48; P=.20). Patients with ADHD who were not obese as of the date ADHD research diagnostic criteria were met were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.14-2.13; P<.01) times more likely to be obese during the subsequent follow-up than were controls. This association was statistically significant in female study subjects (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.13-3.60; P=.02), but not in male participants (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.97-2.05; P=.07). A higher proportion of patients with ADHD were obese after the age of 20 years compared with non-ADHD controls (34.4% vs 25.1%; P=.01); this difference was observed only in female patients (41.6% vs 19.2%). There were no differences in obesity rates between stimulant-treated and nontreated patients with ADHD. Conclusion Childhood ADHD is associated with obesity during childhood and young adulthood in females. Treatment with stimulant medications is not associated with the development of obesity up to young adulthood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)352-361
Number of pages10
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Sex, and Obesity: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this