Characterization of two novel human retropseudogenes related to the calmodulin-encoding gene, CaMII

Markus Koller, Alessandra Baumer, Emanuel E. Strehler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Two human genomic clones (λhg22 and λhg29), containing two novel calmodulin (CaM) retropseudogenes, were isolated and characterized. The two pseudogenes show high similarity with the human CaMII cDNA, hCE1 [SenGupta et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 16663-16670] and the CaMII-type retropseudogene, hCE2 (CaMII-ψ1) [SenGupta et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (1989) 2868]. One of them, in clone λhg22 (CaMII-ψ2), shows all the characteristics of a processed pseudogene. In clone λhg29 (CaMII-ψ3), however, an Alu repetitive sequence was detected immediately upstream from the ancestral 5'-untranslated region. Downstream from the truncated 3'-untranslated region, three additional copies of Alu repetitive sequences flanking about 750 nucleotides of unknown origin were found. Such a processed retropseudogene flanked by multiple Alu repeats may be a target for further recombination events. The three retropseudogenes CaMII-ψ1, CaMII-ψ2 and CaMII-ψ3 are estimated to be about 49, 21 and 25 million years old, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-251
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 1991


  • Alu repeat
  • Recombinant DNA
  • direct repeats
  • gene family
  • genomic clone
  • repetitive sequence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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