Cervical dystonia: a review the role of botulinum toxin.

L. L. Edwards, M. M. Normand, Z. K. Wszolek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Cervical dystonia, although rare in the general population, can severely affect the lives of those afflicted with the disease. Throughout history several theories have been proposed regarding its etiology and pathophysiology, from underlying mental disorders to post-infectious to altered basal ganglia and brainstem function. However, CD remains poorly understood. Because of its similarity to Idiopathic Torsion Dystonia a genetic basic is suspected, but is not proven. Without a true understanding of the disease treatment remains symptomatic, and begins with physical therapy and medications and progresses to consideration of surgery. These treatment strategies have provided some relief, which is usually less than satisfactory within a short period of time. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin has provided significant symptomatic relief of pain in CD and has been associated with subjective and objective improvement in head posture. This newest therapy, although symptomatic, restores a more normal head posture and pain relief enabling the individuals with CD to continue to be active and productive participants in life, providing a ray of hope to these people as we continue to search for a better understanding of the disease process and the development of more effective treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-115
Number of pages7
JournalThe Nebraska medical journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Cervical dystonia: a review the role of botulinum toxin.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this