Case Report: Novel SAVI-Causing Variants in STING1 Expand the Clinical Disease Spectrum and Suggest a Refined Model of STING Activation

Bin Lin, Sofia Torreggiani, Dana Kahle, Dax G. Rumsey, Benjamin L. Wright, Marco A. Montes-Cano, Laura Fernandez Silveira, Sara Alehashemi, Jacob Mitchell, Alexander G. Aue, Zheng Ji, Tengchuan Jin, Adriana A. de Jesus, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gain-of-function mutations in STING1 cause the monogenic interferonopathy, SAVI, which presents with early-onset systemic inflammation, cold-induced vasculopathy and/or interstitial lung disease. We identified 5 patients (3 kindreds) with predominantly peripheral vascular disease who harbor 3 novel STING1 variants, p.H72N, p.F153V, and p.G158A. The latter two were predicted by a previous cryo-EM structure model to cause STING autoactivation. The p.H72N variant in exon 3, however, is the first SAVI-causing variant in the transmembrane linker region. Mutations of p.H72 into either charged residues or hydrophobic residues all led to dramatic loss of cGAMP response, while amino acid changes to residues with polar side chains were able to maintain the wild type status. Structural modeling of these novel mutations suggests a reconciled model of STING activation, which indicates that STING dimers can oligomerize in both open and closed states which would obliviate a high-energy 180° rotation of the ligand-binding head for STING activation, thus refining existing models of STING activation. Quantitative comparison showed that an overall lower autoactivating potential of the disease-causing mutations was associated with less severe lung disease, more severe peripheral vascular disease and the absence of a robust interferon signature in whole blood. Our findings are important in understanding genotype-phenotype correlation, designing targeted STING inhibitors and in dissecting differentially activated pathways downstream of different STING mutations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number636225
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - Mar 22 2021


  • SAVI
  • autoinflammatory disease
  • interferonopathy
  • pediatrics
  • type I interferon
  • whole exome sequencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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