Cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest complicating ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States, 2000–2017

Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Shannon M. Dunlay, Abhiram Prasad, Lindsey R. Sangaralingham, Kianoush Kashani, Nilay D. Shah, Jacob C. Jentzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: There are limited data on the outcomes of cardiogenic shock (CS) and cardiac arrest (CA) complicating ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Adult (>18 years) STEMI admissions were identified using the National Inpatient Sample (2000–2017) and classified as CS + CA, CS only, CA only and no CS/CA. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends, in-hospital mortality, hospitalization costs, use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status and palliative care referrals across the four cohorts. Results: Of the 4,320,117 STEMI admissions, CS, CA and both were noted in 5.8%, 6.2% and 2.7%, respectively. In 2017, compared to 2000, there was an increase in CA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.79–1.86]), CS (aOR 3.92 [95% CI 3.84–4.01]) and both (aOR 4.09 [95% CI 3.94–4.24]) (all p < 0.001). The CS+CA (77.2%) cohort had higher rates of multiorgan failure than CS only (59.7%) and CA only (26.3%), p < 0.001. The CA only cohort had lower rates (64%) of coronary angiography compared to the other groups (>70%), p < 0.001. In-hospital mortality was higher in CS+CA compared to CS alone (adjusted OR 1.87 [95% CI 1.83–1.91]), CA alone (adjusted OR 1.99 [95% CI 1.95–2.03]) or neither (aOR 18.37 [95% CI 18.02–18.71]). The CS+CA cohort had higher use of palliative care and DNR status. The presence of CS, either alone or in combination with CA, was associated with higher hospitalization costs. Conclusions: The combination of CS and CA was associated with higher rates of non-cardiac organ failure and in-hospital mortality in STEMI compared to those with either CS or CA alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-64
Number of pages10
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Acute cardiovascular care
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Outcomes research
  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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