Cardiac rehabilitation models around the globe

Gabriela Lima de Melo Ghisi, Ella Pesah, Karam Turk-Adawi, Marta Supervia, Francisco Lopez Jimenez, Sherry L. Grace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Alternative models of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) delivery, such as home or community-based programs, have been developed to overcome underutilization. However, their availability and characteristics have never been assessed globally. In this cross-sectional study, a piloted survey was administered online to CR programs globally. CR was available in 111/203 (54.7%) countries globally; data were collected in 93 (83.8% country response rate). 1082 surveys (32.1% program response rate) were initiated. Globally, 85 (76.6%) countries with CR offered supervised programs, and 51 (45.9%; or 25.1% of all countries) offered some alternative model. Thirty-eight (34.2%) countries with CR offered home-based programs, with 106 (63.9%) programs offering some form of electronic CR (eCR). Twenty-five (22.5%) countries with CR offered community-based programs. Where available, programs served a mean of 21.4% ± 22.8% of their patients in home-based programs. The median dose for home-based CR was 3 sessions (Q25−Q75 = 1.0–4.0) and for community-based programs was 20 (Q25–Q75 = 9.6–36.0). Seventy-eight (47.0%) respondents did not perceive they had sufficient capacity to meet demand in their home-based program, for reasons including funding and insufficient staff. Where alternative CR models are offered, capacity is insufficient half the time. Home-based CR dose is insufficient to achieve health benefits. Allocation to program model should be evidence-based.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number260
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 7 2018


  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • International health
  • Patient education as topic
  • Surveys and questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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