Cardiac non-human leukocyte antigen identification: Techniques and troubles

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7 Scopus citations


Historically efforts have focused on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) as the major cause for acute and chronic rejection following cardiac transplantation. However, rising evidence indicates that non-HLA antibodies can be both primary initiators and modifiers of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). The purpose of this review is to assess currently available technologies for non-HLA identification and leveraging such responses toward antibody quantification. Several techniques have been used to identify antigenic determinants of recipient graft-specific non-HLA humoral immune responses, but each comes with its own set of benefits and caveats. Improving our ability to detect non-HLA humoral immune response will aid in our understanding of the underlying antigenic determinants of AMR and CAV, as well as improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1332
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Issue numberOCT
StatePublished - Oct 18 2017


  • Antigen identification
  • Heart transplantation
  • Immunoproteomics
  • Non-human leukocyte antigen antibody
  • Proteomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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