Caprini assessment utilization and impact on patient safety in gynecologic surgery

Gregory K. Lewis, Aaron C. Spaulding, Emily Brennan, Jamie N. Bakkum-Gamez, Tri A. Dinh, Dorin T. Colibaseanu, John D. Casler, Michael A. Edwards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) can potentially be associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the utilization of Caprini guideline indicated VTE in elective gynecologic surgery patients and its impact on postoperative VTE and bleeding complications. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of elective gynecologic surgical procedures performed between January 1, 2016, and May 31, 2021. Two study cohorts were generated: (1) those who received and (2) those who did not receive VTE prophylaxis based on Caprini score risk stratification. Outcome measures were then compared between the study cohorts and included the development of a VTE up to 90-days postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative bleeding events. Results: A total of 5471 patients met inclusion criteria and the incidence of VTE up to 90 days postoperatively was 1.04%. Overall, 29.6% of gynecologic surgery patients received Caprini score-based guideline VTE prophylaxis. 39.2% of patients that met high-risk VTE criteria (Caprini > 5) received appropriate Caprini score-based prophylaxis. In multivariate regression analysis, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (OR 2.37, CI 1.27–4.45, p < 0.0001) and Caprini score (OR 1.13, CI 1.03–1.24, p = 0.008) predicted postoperatively VTE occurrence. Increasing Charlson comorbidity score (OR 1.39, CI 1.31–1.47, P < 0.001) ASA score (OR 1.36, CI 1.19–1.55, P < 0.001) and Caprini score (OR 1.10, CI 1.08–1.13, P < 0.001) were associated with increased odds of receiving appropriate inpatient VTE prophylaxis. Conclusion: While the overall incidence of VTE was low in this cohort, enhanced adherence to risk-based practice guidelines may provide more patient benefit than harm to postoperative gynecologic patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)901-912
Number of pages12
JournalArchives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Caprini score
  • Gynecologic surgery
  • Postoperative bleeding risk
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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