Brainstem cavernous malformations: Anatomical, clinical, and surgical considerations

Giuliano Giliberto, Desiree J. Lanzino, Felix E. Diehn, David Factor, Kelly D. Flemming, Giuseppe Lanzino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Symptomatic brainstem cavernous malformations carry a high risk of permanent neurological deficit related to recurrent hemorrhage, which justifies aggressive management. Detailed knowledge of the microscopic and surface anatomy is important for understanding the clinical presentation, predicting possible surgical complications, and formulating an adequate surgical plan. In this article the authors review and illustrate the surgical and microscopic anatomy of the brainstem, provide anatomoclinical correlations, and illustrate a few clinical cases of cavernous malformations in the most common brainstem areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalNeurosurgical focus
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2010


  • Brainstem
  • Cavernous malformation
  • Developmental venous anomaly
  • Safe entry zone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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