Clinical use of MRI for guidance during interventional procedures emerged shortly after the introduction of clinical diagnostic MRI in the late 1980s. However, early applications of interventional MRI (iMRI) were limited owing to the lack of dedicated iMRI magnets, pulse sequences, and equipment. During the 3 decades that fol-lowed, technologic advancements in iMRI magnets that balance bore access and field strength, combined with the development of rapid MRI pulse sequences, surface coils, and commercially available MR-conditional devices, led to the rapid expansion of clinical iMRI applications, particularly in the field of body iMRI. iMRI offers several advantages, including superior soft-tissue resolution, ease of multiplanar imaging, lack of ionizing radiation, and capa-bility to re-image the same section. Disadvantages include longer examination times, lack of MR-conditional equipment, less opera-tor familiarity, and increased cost. Nonetheless, MRI guidance is particularly advantageous when the disease is best visualized with MRI and/or when superior soft-tissue contrast is needed for treatment monitoring. Safety in the iMRI environment is paramount and requires close collaboration among interventional radiologists, MR physicists, and all other iMRI team members. The implementation of risk-limiting measures for personnel and equipment in MR zones III and IV is key. Various commercially available MR-conditional needles, wires, and biopsy and ablation devices are now available throughout the world, depending on the local regulatory status. As such, there has been tremendous growth in the clinical applications of body iMRI, including localization of difficult lesions, biopsy, sclerotherapy, and cryoablation and thermal ablation of malignant and nonmalignant soft-tissue neoplasms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging