BioTagger-GM: A Gene/Protein Name Recognition System

Manabu Torii, Zhangzhi Hu, Cathy H. Wu, Hongfang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Objectives: Biomedical named entity recognition (BNER) is a critical component in automated systems that mine biomedical knowledge in free text. Among different types of entities in the domain, gene/protein would be the most studied one for BNER. Our goal is to develop a gene/protein name recognition system BioTagger-GM that exploits rich information in terminology sources using powerful machine learning frameworks and system combination. Design: BioTagger-GM consists of four main components: (1) dictionary lookup-gene/protein names in BioThesaurus and biomedical terms in UMLS Metathesaurus are tagged in text, (2) machine learning-machine learning systems are trained using dictionary lookup results as one type of feature, (3) post-processing-heuristic rules are used to correct recognition errors, and (4) system combination-a voting scheme is used to combine recognition results from multiple systems. Measurements: The BioCreAtIvE II Gene Mention (GM) corpus was used to evaluate the proposed method. To test its general applicability, the method was also evaluated on the JNLPBA corpus modified for gene/protein name recognition. The performance of the systems was evaluated through cross-validation tests and measured using precision, recall, and F-Measure. Results: BioTagger-GM achieved an F-Measure of 0.8887 on the BioCreAtIvE II GM corpus, which is higher than that of the first-place system in the BioCreAtIvE II challenge. The applicability of the method was also confirmed on the modified JNLPBA corpus. Conclusion: The results suggest that terminology sources, powerful machine learning frameworks, and system combination can be integrated to build an effective BNER system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-255
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Medical Informatics Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


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