Monocyte and macrophage recruitment occur to the injured vessel wall after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of stenotic arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) through increased expression of MCP-1 leading to venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) and venous stenosis (VS). We hypothesized that adventitial delivery of Bindarit, an oral selective inhibitor of MCP-1, -2, and -3 encapsulated in poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles embedded in a thermosensitive Pluronic F127 hydrogel (BN NP) could prevent VNH/VS formation in a murine model of PTA with AVF. Scanning electron microscope and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the BN NP and control nanoparticles (NP C). Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to study drug release kinetics. Immediately after PTA, in a murine model of AVF stenosis, BN NP or NP C was administrated to the adventitia of outflow veins. Animals were sacrificed 3 and 21 days later for gene expression, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Doppler ultrasound was performed weekly. There was no difference in the size and storage modulus of BN NP compared to controls. The pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated increased drug release from BN NP when compared to controls. BN NP-treated vessels had reduced MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 gene, and protein levels, reduced macrophage/monocyte abundance, proinflammatory cytokines, and venous fibrosis resulting in positive vascular remodeling and improved patency with reduced VNH/VS. There was increased peak velocity 21 days after PTA in the BN NP group. Adventitial administration of BN NP to the outflow vein after PTA results in decreased VNH/VS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Physiology (medical)
- Biochemistry, medical