Bedside Allogeneic Erythrocyte Washing with a Cell Saver to Remove Cytokines, Chemokines, and Cell-derived Microvesicles: A Clinical Feasibility Study

Ian J. Welsby, Philip J. Norris, William J. Mauermann, Mihai V. Podgoreanu, Chelsea M. Conn, Laurie Meade, Tamara Cannon, Sheila M. Keating, Christopher C. Silliman, Marguerite Kehler, Phillip J. Schulte, Daryl J. Kor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Removal of cytokines, chemokines, and microvesicles from the supernatant of allogeneic erythrocytes may help mitigate adverse transfusion reactions. Blood bank-based washing procedures present logistical difficulties; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that on-demand bedside washing of allogeneic erythrocyte units is capable of removing soluble factors and is feasible in a clinical setting. Methods: There were in vitro and prospective, observation cohort components to this a priori planned substudy evaluating bedside allogeneic erythrocyte washing, with a cell saver, during cardiac surgery. Laboratory data were collected from the first 75 washed units given to a subset of patients nested in the intervention arm of a parent clinical trial. Paired pre- and postwash samples from the blood unit bags were centrifuged. The supernatant was aspirated and frozen at -70°C, then batch-tested for cell-derived microvesicles, soluble CD40 ligand, chemokine ligand 5, and neutral lipids (all previously associated with transfusion reactions) and cell-free hemoglobin (possibly increased by washing). From the entire cohort randomized to the intervention arm of the trial, bedside washing was defined as feasible if at least 75% of prescribed units were washed per protocol. Results: Paired data were available for 74 units. Washing reduced soluble CD40 ligand (median [interquartile range]; from 143 [1 to 338] ng/ml to zero), chemokine ligand 5 (from 1,314 [715 to 2,551] to 305 [179 to 488] ng/ml), and microvesicle numbers (from 6.90 [4.10 to 20.0] to 0.83 [0.33 to 2.80] × 106), while cell-free hemoglobin concentration increased from 72.6 (53.6 to 171.6) mg/dl to 210.5 (126.6 to 479.6) mg/dl (P < 0.0001 for each). There was no effect on neutral lipids. Bedside washing was determined as feasible for 80 of 81 patients (99%); overall, 293 of 314 (93%) units were washed per protocol. Conclusions: Bedside erythrocyte washing was clinically feasible and greatly reduced concentrations of soluble factors thought to be associated with transfusion-related adverse reactions, increasing concentrations of cell-free hemoglobin while maintaining acceptable (less than 0.8%) hemolysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)395-404
Number of pages10
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Bedside Allogeneic Erythrocyte Washing with a Cell Saver to Remove Cytokines, Chemokines, and Cell-derived Microvesicles: A Clinical Feasibility Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this