Bacteremia complicating gram-negative urinary tract infections: A population-based study

Majdi N. Al-Hasan, Jeanette E. Eckel-Passow, Larry M. Baddour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common and bacteremia complicating this infection is frequently seen. There has been limited data published that characterize bacteremic UTI in a population-based setting over an extended period. We therefore examined the incidence rate, microbiology, outcome, and in vitro antimicrobial resistance trends of bacteremic UTI due to gram-negative bacilli in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1/1/1998 to 12/31/2007. Methods: We used Kaplan-Meier method to estimate mortality rates, Cox proportional hazard regression to determine risk factors for mortality, and logistic regression to examine temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance rates. Results: We identified 542 episodes of bacteremic gram-negative UTI among Olmsted County residents during the study period. The median age of patients was 71 years and 65.1% were females. The age-adjusted incidence rate per 100,000 person-years was 55.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49.5-61.2) in females and 44.6 (95% CI: 38.1-51.1) in males. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (74.9%). The 28-day and 1-year all-cause mortality rates were 4.9% (95% CI: 3.0-6.8) and 15.6% (95% CI: 12.4-18.8), respectively. Older age was associated with higher mortality; community-acquired infection acquisition and E. coli UTI were both independently associated with lower mortality. During the study period, resistance rates increased linearly from 10% to 24% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and from 1% to 8% for ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of bacteremic gram-negative UTI. The linear trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative isolates should be considered when empiric therapy is selected.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)278-285
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infection
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2010


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Bloodstream infection
  • Epidemiology
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Gram-negative
  • Incidence
  • Mortality
  • Urinary tract infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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