Meckel syndrome (MKS) is an embryonic lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polycystic kidney disease, central nervous system defects, polydactyly and liver fibrosis. This disorder is thought to be associated with defects in primary cilia; therefore, it is classed as a ciliopathy. To date, six genes have been commonly associated with MKS (MKS1, TMEM67, TMEM216, CEP290, CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L). However, mutation screening of these genes revealed two mutated alleles in only just over half of our MKS cohort (46 families), suggesting an even greater level of genetic heterogeneity. To explore the full genetic complexity of MKS, we performed exon-enriched next-generation sequencing of 31 ciliopathy genes in 12 MKS pedigrees using RainDance microdroplet-PCR enrichment and IlluminaGAIIx next-generation sequencing. In family M456, we detected a splice-donor site change in a novel MKS gene, B9D1. The B9D1 protein is structurally similar to MKS1 and has been shown to be of importance for ciliogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of fetal RNA revealed, hemizygously, a single smaller mRNA product with a frameshifting exclusion of B9D1 exon 4. ArrayCGH showed that the second mutation was a 1.713 Mb de novo deletion completely deleting the B9D1 allele. Immunofluorescence analysis highlighted a significantly lower level of ciliated patient cells compared to controls, confirming a role for B9D1 in ciliogenesis. The fetus inherited an additional likely pathogenic novel missense change to a second MKS gene, CEP290; p.R2210C, suggesting oligogenic inheritance in this disorder.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology