Automatic monitoring of localized skin dose with fluoroscopic and interventional procedures

Yasaman Khodadadegan, Muhong Zhang, William Pavlicek, Robert G. Paden, Brian Chong, Beth A. Schueler, Kenneth A. Fetterly, Steve G. Langer, Teresa Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


This software tool locates and computes the intensity of radiation skin dose resulting from fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. It is comprised of multiple modules. Using standardized body specific geometric values, a software module defines a set of male and female patients arbitarily positioned on a fluoroscopy table. Simulated X-ray angiographic (XA) equipment includes XRII and digital detectors with or without bi-plane configurations and left and right facing tables. Skin dose estimates are localized by computing the exposure to each 0.01×0.01 m 2 on the surface of a patient irradiated by the X-ray beam. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Report Dose data sent to a modular dosimetry database automatically extracts the 11 XA tags necessary for peak skin dose computation. Skin dose calculation software uses these tags (gantry angles, air kerma at the patient entrance reference point, etc.) and applies appropriate corrections of exposure and beam location based on each irradiation event (fluoroscopy and acquistions). A physicist screen records the initial validation of the accuracy, patient and equipment geometry, DICOM compliance, exposure output calibration, backscatter factor, and table and pad attenuation once per system. A technologist screen specifies patient positioning, patient height and weight, and physician user. Peak skin dose is computed and localized; additionally, fluoroscopy duration and kerma area product values are electronically recorded and sent to the XA database. This approach fully addresses current limitations in meeting accreditation criteria, eliminates the need for paper logs at a XA console, and provides a method where automated ALARA montoring is possible including email and pager alerts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)626-639
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Digital Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2011


  • DICOM structured report dose
  • Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Interventional radiology
  • Joint commission (JC)
  • Patient entrance reference point
  • Peak skin dose
  • Radiation dose
  • Sentinal event

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Science Applications


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