Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization: Mechanisms, models, and therapeutic strategies

Carlos Silvestre-Roig, Menno P. De Winther, Christian Weber, Mat J. Daemen, Esther Lutgens, Oliver Soehnlein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Understanding the pathophysiology of atherogenesis and the progression of atherosclerosis have been major goals of cardiovascular research during the previous decades. However, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain largely obscure. Here, we review how lesional cells undergo cell death and how failed clearance exacerbates necrotic core formation. Advanced atherosclerotic lesions are further weakened by the pronounced local activity of matrix-degrading proteases as well as immature neovessels sprouting into the lesion. To stimulate translation of the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of plaque destabilization into clinical studies, we further summarize available animal models of plaque destabilization. Based on the molecular mechanisms leading to plaque instability, we outline the current status of clinical and preclinical trials to induce plaque stability with a focus on induction of dead cell clearance, inhibition of protease activity, and dampening of inflammatory cell recruitment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-226
Number of pages13
JournalCirculation research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 3 2014


  • atherosclerosis
  • efferocytosis
  • macrophages
  • necrotic core
  • neutrophils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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