Asynchronous and Synchronous Delivery Models for Home-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation A SCIENTIFIC REVIEW

Randal J. Thomas, Cara E. Petersen, Thomas P. Olson, Alexis L. Beatty, Rongjing Ding, Marta Supervia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To review the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of asynchronous and synchronous delivery models of home-based cardiac rehabilitation (HBCR). Methods: We reviewed recently published systematic reviews and other publications of randomized studies of asynchronous and synchronous HBCR to assess principles, outcomes, and limitations of those delivery methods compared with center-based cardiac rehabilitation (CBCR). Summary: While most studies prior to 2016 involved asynchronous HBCR approaches to care, studies since 2016 have included asynchronous or synchronous delivery models. Both delivery models have been shown to help provide core components of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Studies using either method have been shown to have similar short-term patient outcomes as CBCR, at least in low- to moderate-risk patients who have been studied. Asynchronous HBCR offers greater flexibility for patients and CR staff, while synchronous HBCR provides greater real-time oversight and feedback to patients. Asynchronous and synchronous HBCR is an option to consider for patients eligible for CR. Additional research is needed for both delivery models, applied separately or in combination, to compare their impact on shorter- and longer-term patient outcomes and to assess their impact in patient subgroups (referral diagnosis, women, elderly, underrepresented racial and ethnic minority groups, patients at a higher cardiovascular disease risk, patients with multiple comorbid conditions, etc).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-412
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • asynchronous
  • cardiac rehabilitation
  • home-based
  • models
  • synchronous

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Rehabilitation
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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