Association of gastric emptying with postprandial appetite and satiety sensations in obesity

Daniel Gonzalez-Izundegui, Alejandro Campos, Gerardo Calderon, Maria L. Ricardo-Silgado, Lizeth Cifuentes, Paul A. Decker, Eric J. Vargas, Linh Tran, Duane Burton, Barham Abu Dayyeh, Michael Camilleri, Jeanette E. Eckel-Passow, Andres Acosta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Satiety, defined as the duration of the sensation of fullness, is usually measured by validated visual analog scales (VAS) for appetite. Gastric function plays a key role in food intake regulation. However, the association between gastric emptying (GE) and VAS appetite is unknown. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 participants (mean [SEM] age = 39 [0.8] years, mean [SEM] BMI = 38 [0.5] kg/m2, 67% females) completed simultaneous measurements of GE and VAS appetite. After a 320-kcal meal, GE was measured by scintigraphy and appetite by validated 100-mm VAS for 240 minutes. Satiation was defined as calories consumed to terminate meal and was measured by an ad libitum meal. GE, VAS, and ad libitum meal tests were measured on the same day. Percent of meal retention in the stomach, VAS area under curve (AUC0-240 min), and overall appetite score (OAS) were calculated. Pearson correlation (ρ) determined the association of GE with VAS appetite and satiation. Appetite components were also analyzed by quartiles based on GE120 min. Results: GE120 min was correlated with sensation of VAS hungerAUC(0-240 min) (ρ = 0.24, p = 0.004), fullnessAUC(0-240 min) (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.05), and OASAUC(0-240 min) (ρ = 0.20, p = 0.02). Patients with rapid GE120 min had a mean increase in VAS hungerAUC(0-240 min) by 32 mm/min (15.62%, p = 0.03) compared with normal/slow GE120 min. Conclusions: GE is associated with the sensations of appetite, and rapid GE is associated with increased appetite, which may contribute to weight gain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1497-1507
Number of pages11
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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