Androgen receptor: Past, present and future

Lucy J. Schmidt, Donald J. Tindall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Androgens and the androgen receptor have been the focus of prostate cancer research since the early 1940s, when Huggins and Hodges demonstrated that removal of androgens caused advanced prostate cancer to regress. Since that time, a large number of androgen deprivation therapies have been developed in an effort to cure this disease, but prostate cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in males worldwide. This is due in part to the emergence of castration- recurrent prostate cancer in patients with advanced disease who have failed androgen deprivation therapy. The androgen receptor is still a major player in castration-recurrent disease, and though much has been discovered since the early work of Huggins and Hodges regarding how prostate cancer cells manage to avoid the effects of androgen deprivation, survival times for men with advanced prostate cancer have changed only modestly. Research is now directed toward delineating the mechanisms of action of the androgen receptor under castrate conditions, whether through amplification of the AR, mutation, expression of splice variants, use of alternate signaling pathways, aberrant expression and activation of coregulators, or intratumoral androgen biosynthesis. Genome-wide association studies are also adding to the wealth of knowledge surrounding the androgen receptor, and with this knowledge comes the ability to design new drug therapies directed toward eradication of this disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-407
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent drug targets
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 30 2013


  • Androgen deprivation therapy
  • Androgen receptor
  • Castration-recurrent prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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