Anatomical considerations for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery

Erica A. Moran, Christopher J. Gostout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Success in surgical procedures relies on the surgeon's understanding of anatomy and the ways in which the internal organs relate to one another. Recently, a new surgical technique has been introduced. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) uses the body's natural orifices (mouth, anus, urethra, or vagina) as entrance points to the peritoneal cavities (through the stomach, rectum, bladder, or posterior vaginal fornix). NOTES techniques have proven feasible in both animal and early human trials. While it remains to be seen what advantages NOTES possesses over traditional surgical approaches, a clear understanding of human anatomy will be critical for successful, safe NOTES procedures. This article summarizes the development and the basic techniques of NOTES and reviews those anatomical considerations specific to NOTES.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)627-632
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Anatomy
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2009


  • Anatomy of NOTES
  • Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology


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