Analysis of superoxide anion production in tissue.

Michela Zanetti, Livius V. d'Uscio, Timothy E. Peterson, Zvonimir S. Katusic, Timothy O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Endothelial production of oxygen free radicals, especially superoxide anion (O(2)-), is an important mechanism of vascular dysfunction in hypertension. Overproduction of oxygen free radicals, mainly O(2)- occurs in human hypertension and in a wide variety of animal models. Thus, analysis of O(2)- generation represents a useful tool for identifying oxidative stress in hypertension. Among the methods used for O(2)- detection, the chemiluminescent probe lucigenin has been widely shown to be a useful method for detecting and quantifying the O(2)- formation. On the other hand, staining by the oxidative fluorescent probe dihydroethidine, which is freely permeable to cell membranes, is suitable to monitor in situ production of O(2)- and to provide a reliable marker of its intracellular presence. Dihydroethidine is oxidized in the presence of O(2)- to a fluorescent marker product, which is rapidly intercalated into DNA. Thus, nuclei are the primary fluorescent structures labeled. By simply incubating experimental samples in the presence of dihydroethidine followed by analysis of fluorescence, this method allows rapid and specific detection of intracellular oxidative stress due to superoxide anion generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-72
Number of pages8
JournalMethods in molecular medicine
StatePublished - 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine


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