An investigation into closed-loop treatment of neurological disorders based on sensing mitochondrial dysfunction

Scott D. Adams, Abbas Z. Kouzani, Susannah J. Tye, Kevin E. Bennet, Michael Berk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Dynamic feedback based closed-loop medical devices offer a number of advantages for treatment of heterogeneous neurological conditions. Closed-loop devices integrate a level of neurobiological feedback, which allows for real-time adjustments to be made with the overarching aim of improving treatment efficacy and minimizing risks for adverse events. One target which has not been extensively explored as a potential feedback component in closed-loop therapies is mitochondrial function. Several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, Major Depressive disorder and Bipolar disorder have been linked to perturbations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This paper investigates the potential to monitor this mitochondrial function as a method of feedback for closed-loop neuromodulation treatments. A generic model of the closed-loop treatment is developed to describe the high-level functions of any system designed to control neural function based on mitochondrial response to stimulation, simplifying comparison and future meta-analysis. This model has four key functional components including: a sensor, signal manipulator, controller and effector. Each of these components are described and several potential technologies for each are investigated. While some of these candidate technologies are quite mature, there are still technological gaps remaining. The field of closed-loop medical devices is rapidly evolving, and whilst there is a lot of interest in this area, widespread adoption has not yet been achieved due to several remaining technological hurdles. However, the significant therapeutic benefits offered by this technology mean that this will be an active area for research for years to come.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8
JournalJournal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 13 2018


  • ATP sensing
  • Closed-loop
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Mitochondrial function
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Health Informatics


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