Alterations in scapular position with fatigue: A study in swimmers

N. M.Nuala Crotty, Jay Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


To use two commonly accepted measurement techniques to determine whether intense swimming exercise altered scapular position in male high school swimmers. Scapular position differences between dominant and nondominant shoulders were also investigated. Design: A pilot study on 10 asymptomatic male volunteers established the reliability of the scapular position measurement techniques described by DiVeta and Kibler (intratester intraclass correlation coefficients 0.86-0.98). Scapular position was prospectively recorded before and after swimming practice just prior to tapering for championship competition. Participants: Twenty male high school swimmers from two local teams, ages 13 to 18 years. Interventions: Subjects completed their usual 2-hour swimming practice at the peak of their training intensity. Main Outcome Measures: Change in scapular position preexercise versus postexercise. Results: Scapular position did not change preexercise to postexercise for either the DiVeta (22.2 ± 1.4 to 22.3 ± 1.5 cm, p = 0.96) or Kibler (9.2 ± 1.4 to 9.4 ± 1.3 cm, p = 1.00) measures. Nondominant preexercise scapular position was generally more medial and moved laterally with exercise, becoming roughly equivalent to the dominant shoulder. Conclusion: The DiVeta and Kibler scapular position measurement techniques are acceptably reliable. However these techniques generally failed to demonstrate significant changes in scapular position after intense swimming exercise in the study population. Nondominant side scapulae typically moved laterally postexercise. These findings and implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-258
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2000


  • Fatigue
  • Hand dominance
  • Scapular position
  • Swimmers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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