Advances in human intracranial electroencephalography research, guidelines and good practices

Manuel R. Mercier, Anne Sophie Dubarry, François Tadel, Pietro Avanzini, Nikolai Axmacher, Dillan Cellier, Maria Del Vecchio, Liberty S. Hamilton, Dora Hermes, Michael J. Kahana, Robert T. Knight, Anais Llorens, Pierre Megevand, Lucia Melloni, Kai J. Miller, Vitória Piai, Aina Puce, Nick F. Ramsey, Caspar M. Schwiedrzik, Sydney E. SmithArjen Stolk, Nicole C. Swann, Mariska J. Vansteensel, Bradley Voytek, Liang Wang, Jean Philippe Lachaux, Robert Oostenveld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since the second-half of the twentieth century, intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), including both electrocorticography (ECoG) and stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG), has provided an intimate view into the human brain. At the interface between fundamental research and the clinic, iEEG provides both high temporal resolution and high spatial specificity but comes with constraints, such as the individual's tailored sparsity of electrode sampling. Over the years, researchers in neuroscience developed their practices to make the most of the iEEG approach. Here we offer a critical review of iEEG research practices in a didactic framework for newcomers, as well addressing issues encountered by proficient researchers. The scope is threefold: (i) review common practices in iEEG research, (ii) suggest potential guidelines for working with iEEG data and answer frequently asked questions based on the most widespread practices, and (iii) based on current neurophysiological knowledge and methodologies, pave the way to good practice standards in iEEG research. The organization of this paper follows the steps of iEEG data processing. The first section contextualizes iEEG data collection. The second section focuses on localization of intracranial electrodes. The third section highlights the main pre-processing steps. The fourth section presents iEEG signal analysis methods. The fifth section discusses statistical approaches. The sixth section draws some unique perspectives on iEEG research. Finally, to ensure a consistent nomenclature throughout the manuscript and to align with other guidelines, e.g., Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) and the OHBM Committee on Best Practices in Data Analysis and Sharing (COBIDAS), we provide a glossary to disambiguate terms related to iEEG research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number119438
StatePublished - Oct 15 2022


  • ECoG
  • Electrocorticogram
  • Good research practice
  • Intracranial recording in humans
  • Stereotactic electroencephalography
  • sEEG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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